Anne Frank
ANNEFRANK
Learning About the Holocaust

Studying Citizenship

What is Citizenship?

Citizenship is a new theme within the National Curriculum.

It runs through all subjects, and at Key Stages 3 and 4, citizenship is a compulsory part of the National Curriculum.

The most up to date version of the National Curriculum requirements for study in this subject can be found by going to the National Curriculum's website at www.nc.uk.net.

Citizenship gives pupils the knowledge, skills and understanding to play an effective rôle in society at local, national and international levels.

It helps them to become informed, thoughtful and responsible citizens who are aware of their duties and rights.

It promotes their spiritual, moral, social and cultural development, making them more self-confident and responsible both in and beyond the classroom.

It encourages pupils to play a helpful part in the life of their schools, neighbourhoods, communities and the wider world.

It also teaches them about our economy and democratic institutions and values; encourages respect for different national, religious and ethnic identities; and develops pupils' ability to reflect on issues and take part in discussions.

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Citizenship is complemented by the framework for personal, social and health education at key stages 3 and 4.

You may open or download the National Curriculum for Citizenship by using the link below.

You can also find guidance and suggestions for teaching citizenship from the Citizenship Foundation.

To see how the National Curriculum for Citizenship might be supported by a scheme of work relating to the study of Anne Frank or the Holocaust, you might like to look at the extracts from the National Curriculum below.

These show the Programme of Study (what schools should teach) for citizenship in Key Stages 3 and 4.

The areas of knowledge, skills and understanding have been edited, to remove things which are not clearly related to the study of Anne Frank and the Holocaust.

The study of Anne Frank, her diary and her situation, contains many opportunities for considering aspects of personal and social education, alongside citizenship and moral development.

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Citizenship in Key Stage 2

During key stage 2 pupils learn about themselves as growing and changing individuals with their own experiences and ideas, and as members of their communities.

They become more mature, independent and self-confident.

They learn about the wider world and the interdependence of communities within it.

They develop their sense of social justice and moral responsibility and begin to understand that their own choices and behaviour can affect local, national or global issues and political and social institutions.

They learn how to take part more fully in school and community activities.

As they begin to develop into young adults, they face the changes of puberty and transfer to secondary school with support and encouragement from their school.

They learn how to make more confident and informed choices about their health and environment; to take more responsibility, individually and as a group, for their own learning; and to resist bullying.

The following are non-statutory guidelines:

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Knowledge, Skills and Understanding

Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of their abilities

Pupils should be taught:

  • to talk and write about their opinions, and explain their views, on issues that affect themselves and society
  • to recognise their worth as individuals by identifying positive things about themselves and their achievements, seeing their mistakes, making amends and setting personal goals
  • to face new challenges positively by collecting information, looking for help, making responsible choices, and taking action
  • to recognise, as they approach puberty, how people's emotions change at that time and how to deal with their feelings towards themselves, their family and others in a positive way
  • about the range of jobs carried out by people they know, and to understand how they can develop skills to make their own contribution in the future
  • to look after their money and realise that future wants and needs may be met through saving
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Preparing to play an active role as citizens

Pupils should be taught:

  • to research, discuss and debate topical issues, problems and events
  • why and how rules and laws are made and enforced, why different rules are needed in different situations and how to take part in making and changing rules
  • to realise the consequences of anti-social and aggressive behaviours, such as bullying and racism, on individuals and communities
  • that there are different kinds of responsibilities, rights and duties at home, at school and in the community, and that these can sometimes conflict with each other
  • to reflect on spiritual, moral, social, and cultural issues, using imagination to understand other people's experiences
  • to resolve differences by looking at alternatives, making decisions and explaining choices
  • what democracy is, and about the basic institutions that support it locally and nationally
  • to recognise the role of voluntary, community and pressure groups
  • to appreciate the range of national, regional, religious and ethnic identities in the United Kingdom
  • that resources can be allocated in different ways and that these economic choices affect individuals, communities and the sustainability of the environment
  • to explore how the media present information
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Developing a Healthy, Safer Lifestyle

Pupils should be taught:

  • what makes a healthy lifestyle, including the benefits of exercise and healthy eating, what affects mental health, and how to make informed choices
  • that bacteria and viruses can affect health and that following simple, safe routines can reduce their spread
  • about how the body changes as they approach puberty
  • which commonly available substances and drugs are legal and illegal, their effects and risks
  • to recognise the different risks in different situations and then decide how to behave responsibly, including sensible road use, and judging what kind of physical contact is acceptable or unacceptable
  • that pressure to behave in an unacceptable or risky way can come from a variety of sources, including people they know, and how to ask for help and use basic techniques for resisting pressure to do wrong
  • school rules about health and safety, basic emergency aid procedures and where to get help
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Developing Good Relationships and Respecting the Differences Between People

Pupils should be taught:

  • that their actions affect themselves and others, to care about other people's feelings and to try to see things from their points of view
  • to think about the lives of people living in other places and times, and people with different values and customs
  • to be aware of different types of relationship, including marriage and those between friends and families, and to develop the skills to be effective in relationships
  • to realise the nature and consequences of racism, teasing, bullying and aggressive behaviours, and how to respond to them and ask for help
  • to recognise and challenge stereotypes
  • that differences and similarities between people arise from a number of factors, including cultural, ethnic, racial and religious diversity, gender and disability
  • where individuals, families and groups can get help and support
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Breadth of Opportunities

During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through opportunities to:

  • take responsibility [for example, for planning and looking after the school environment; for the needs of others, such as by acting as a peer supporter, as a befriender, or as a playground mediator for younger pupils; for looking after animals properly; for identifying safe, healthy and sustainable means of travel when planning their journey to school]
  • feel positive about themselves [for example, by producing personal diaries, profiles and portfolios of achievements; by having opportunities to show what they can do and how much responsibility they can take]
  • participate [for example, in the school's decision-making process, relating it to democratic structures and processes such as councils, parliaments, government and voting]
  • make real choices and decisions [for example, about issues affecting their health and well-being such as smoking; on the use of scarce resources; how to spend money, including pocket money and contributions to charities]
  • meet and talk with people [for example, people who contribute to society through environmental pressure groups or international aid organisations; people who work in the school and the neighbourhood, such as religious leaders, community police officers]
  • develop relationships through work and play [for example, taking part in activities with groups that have particular needs, such as children with special needs and the elderly; communicating with children in other countries by satellite, e-mail or letters]
  • consider social and moral dilemmas that they come across in life [for example, encouraging respect and understanding between different races and dealing with harassment]
  • find information and advice [for example, through helplines; by understanding about welfare systems in society]
  • prepare for change [for example, transferring to secondary school]
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Citizenship in Key Stage 3

Knowledge, Skills and Understanding

Teaching should ensure that knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens are acquired and applied when developing skills of enquiry and communication, and participation and responsible action.

Knowledge and Understanding about Becoming Informed Citizens

Pupils should be taught about:

  • the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society;
  • the diversity of national, regional, religious and ethnic identities in the United Kingdom and the need for mutual respect and understanding;
  • the importance of resolving conflict fairly;
  • the world as a global community, and the political...and social implications of this.
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Developing Skills of Enquiry and Communication

Pupils should be taught to:

  • think about topical political, spiritual, moral, social and cultural issues, problems and events by analysing information and its sources, including ICT-based sources;
  • justify orally and in writing a personal opinion about such issues, problems or events;
  • contribute to group and exploratory class discussions, and take part in debates.
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Developing Skills of Participation and Responsible Action

Pupils should be taught to:

  • use their imagination to consider other people's experiences and be able to think about, express and explain views that are not their own;
  • negotiate, decide and take part responsibly in both school and community-based activities;
  • reflect on the process of participating.
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Citizenship in Key Stage 4

During key stage 4 pupils continue to study, think about and discuss topical political, spiritual, moral, social and cultural issues, problems and events.

They study the legal, political, religious, social, constitutional and economic systems that influence their lives and communities, looking more closely at how they work and their effects.

They continue to be actively involved in the life of their school, neighbourhood and wider communities, taking greater responsibility.

They develop a range of skills to help them do this, with a growing emphasis on critical awareness and evaluation.

They develop knowledge, skills and understanding in these areas through, for example, learning more about fairness, social justice, respect for democracy and diversity at school, local, national and global level, and through taking part in community activities.

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Knowledge, Skills and Understanding

Teaching should ensure that knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens are acquired and applied when developing skills of enquiry and communication, and participation and responsible action.

Knowledge and Understanding about Becoming Informed Citizens

Pupils should be taught about:

  • the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society and how they relate to citizens, including the role and operation of the criminal and civil justice systems;
  • the origins and implications of...diverse national, regional, religious and ethnic identities...and the need for mutual respect and understanding;
  • the importance of playing an active part in democratic and electoral processes;
  • the importance of a free press, and the media's role in society, including the internet, in providing information and affecting opinion.
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Developing Skills of Enquiry and Communication

Pupils should be taught to:

  • research a topical political, spiritual, moral, social or cultural issue, problem or event by analysing information from different sources, including ICT-based sources;
  • express, justify and defend orally and in writing a personal opinion about such issues, problems or events;
  • contribute to group and exploratory class discussions, and take part in formal debates.
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Developing Skills of Participation and Responsible Action

Pupils should be taught to:

  • use their imagination to consider other people's experiences and be able to think about, express, explain and critically evaluate views that are not their own;
  • negotiate, decide and take part responsibly in school and community-based activities;
  • reflect on the process of participating.
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Attainment Targets: End of Key Stage Descriptions

The following descriptions describe the types and range of performance that the majority of pupils should characteristically demonstrate by the end of the key stage, having been taught the relevant programme of study.

The descriptions are designed to help teachers judge the extent to which their pupils' attainment relates to this expectation.

The expectation at the end of key stage 3 matches the level of demand in other subjects and is broadly equivalent to levels 5/6.

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Key Stage 3

Pupils have a broad knowledge and understanding of the topical events they study; the rights, responsibilities and duties of citizens; the role of the voluntary sector; forms of government; provision of public services; and the criminal and legal systems.

They show how the public gets information and how opinion is formed and expressed, including through the media. They show understanding of how and why changes take place in society.

Pupils take part in school and community-based activities, demonstrating personal and group responsibility in their attitudes to themselves and others.

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Key Stage 4

Pupils have a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the topical events they study; the rights, responsibilities and duties of citizens; the role of the voluntary sector; forms of government; and the criminal and civil justice, legal and economic systems.

They obtain and use different kinds of information, including the media, to form and express an opinion.

They evaluate the effectiveness of different ways of bringing about change at different levels of society.

Pupils take part effectively in school and community-based activities, showing a willingness and commitment to evaluate such activities critically.

They demonstrate personal and group responsibility in their attitudes to themselves and others.

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Anne Frank and Citizenship

Most of the teaching activities described on this site can be integrated into a school's program for citizenship.

Alternatively, appropriate study of the life of Anne Frank could be developed as a scheme of work, or module within such a scheme, for studying citizenship within the National Curriculum.

Citizenship can be studied effectively within an integrated cross-curricular scheme of work.

This is particularly helpful in Key Stage 4, where pupils' work may be principally directed to achievement in GCSE or other assessed courses or study.

Pupils can reach the attainment targets for citizenship in work for other subjects, such as history and English, which relates to Anne Frank and the Holocaust.

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Racism Today

A new section of the exhibition, Anne Frank: A History for Today, concerns the life of the black teenager, Stephen Lawrence, murdered in London in 1993.

In studying citizenship, young people could consider what the racist violence of modern Britain has to do with the systematic racism of the Nazi régime.

Below are some suggestions about how one might structure this task, which could be integrated into lessons in PSHE, English, history or a 6th form General Studies and Key Skills programme.

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Finding Out About and Describing Racism

  • Using reference works, media sources and the Web, try to find helpful information about racism. Warning: some sources you find may promote racism - teachers should give pupils guidance about how to cope with this.
  • Try to work out your own description of racism - do this as a short entry for an encyclopedia. Set yourself a word limit and keep within it.
  • Try to find a short list of examples of racism from the past and the present.
  • Reflect on your own experience of racism - this may be either as someone who has suffered racist prejudice, or had prejudices to other people (or even both of these). If your attitudes have changed over time, can you explain why this is?
  • Is racism just one more kind of prejudice, or is it in some basic ways different (from, say, sexism, ageism or snobbery)?
  • Can human societies ever be safe from racism? Why do you think as you do?
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Understanding and Responding to Racism

  • For written or spoken work in English, present a study or review of one or more works of literature, art or culture in which racism is a theme. The possible subjects are too many to list, but some suggestions include
    • Novels: Harriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom's Cabin, Alan Paton: Cry, the Beloved Country, Harper Lee: To Kill a Mockingbird
    • Films: Birth of a Nation, In the Heat of the Night, Cabaret, Mississippi Burning, A Time to Kill, Schindler's List
    • Plays and poems: Shakespeare: The Merchant of Venice; Blake: The Little Black Boy; John Agard: Half-Caste
  • As a task in history, study the scheme of work How and Why Did the Holocaust Happen?, from the DfES Standards Site.
  • As a task in drama, develop short scenes or exercises to explore the ideas of race, identity and prejudice.
  • As a study of language, try to find out about the special words and phrases we use to express ideas of race. Find out what these mean in common use today, and how they may have changed over time. Do they mean different things? Are they more or less acceptable in written or spoken use than they were previously?
  • As a task in science, explore the idea of race in relation to life-sciences. How far do general biology, anatomy, biochemistry and genetics support the idea of “race” as a meaningful term in science. Find out about how ideas about race have changed in the light of new discoveries.
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Making a Difference

  • Using Internet technologies, such as chat and e-mail, exchange messages with people from other parts of the world; find out about their culture, and see what things you have in common with them.
  • In your school or local community, try to find out about the different cultures of people around you. Older students may be able to visit primary schools or work with younger children in their own school to help them learn to respect other races.
  • If you think fighting racism is a very important duty for you, you may wish to join a political party or pressure group (like the Anti-Nazi League) which works to remove racism. Alternatively, you might want to do voluntary work for a charity (like Comic Relief, Christian Aid or Oxfam) which supports projects to relieve suffering and poverty among people of all races.
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Politics is Boring...

Have you ever said this and meant it? Is politics boring or is it really the way politics works in the UK and is reported in the news which is boring?

Do you think that politics would have been boring for ordinary people in Germany or Britain in the time of the Second World War?

Would politics have seemed boring to Anne Frank or other victims and survivors of the Holocaust?

Can you think of reasons why all people should understand politics, and take a live part in it, by voting, discussion and other democratic activity?

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Britain today has a more free society than Hitler's Germany, but we do not have complete freedom.

What are the limits to our freedom?

Can you think of areas where our freedom should be greater or less?

For example:

  • should the age-limits which restrict some freedoms (to smoke, drink, drive, marry, see certain films, and so on) be changed?
  • do ordinary people have enough information, or too little, or too much?
  • would the use of identity cards increase freedom for law-abiding people (by reducing crime, fraud, under-age drinking) or reduce it?
  • should censorship of film and television be increased, reduced or left as it is?
  • are there other areas where you think we should have more or less freedom?
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Bringing Politics to Life

Can you think of ways to make politics more relevant to you (and interesting)?

Here are some things you could do to make it seem more real.

  • During national General Election campaigns, hold a mock election in your school. You can take this seriously, by creating parties which mirror the national political parties, or in a light-hearted way, by creating fringe or single-issue parties.
  • Invite local MPs and other politicians to come to your school and answer your questions or speak to groups of pupils.
  • Organize a school visit to the Houses of Parliament, to see how this part of government works. Alternatively, you could visit the Welsh or Scottish national assemblies.
  • Using a political party's manifesto or other information, script and perform (and perhaps record) a Party Political (or Party Election) Broadcast, to be shown on mainstream TV, or a special version for children's TV.
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Copyright in teaching resources and materials on this site belongs to the East Riding of Yorkshire Council. Please acknowledge intellectual property rights by giving the URL of any pages you use, and/or include the © copyright symbol. Thank you.

To comment on this site please e-mail Chris.A.Brown@eastriding.gov.uk

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EAST RIDING of YORKSHIRE COUNCIL School Improvement Service, County Hall, Beverley, East Yorks. HU17 9BA.
Tel: +44(0)1482 887700   Fax: +44(0)1482 887700   Website: www.eastriding.gov.uk